| Grand Duchy of Kington Langley|
Stirhartogdammet ef Kingtoni Rybden
|Flag||Coat of arms|
Motto: "Sovereignty, Unity & Equality"
| Royal arms of Kington Langley|
Location of Kington Langley (green)
- in the Langlian Isles (grey)
Major towns and cities of Kington Langley
(and largest city)
- Regional languages
- Grand Duke
- Prime Minister
| Constitutional Monarchy|
- Upper house
- Lower house
House of Commons
House of Lords
- Monarchy established
- Governance Act
1 January 1938
14 September 2008
21 August 2010
- % water
114 927 km²
- 2011 estimate
- 2011 census
| GDP (PPP)
- per capita
| 2011 estimate|
| GDP (Nominal)
- per capita
| 2011 estimate|
|HDI (2010)|| 0.973|
|Currency||Kingtonian Pound (KLP)|
| Time Zone
- Summer (DST)
| KLT (+0.20)|
|Drives on the||left|
|WA status||non-member (observer)|
Kington Langley, officially the Grand Duchy of Kington Langley (Kingtonian:Stirhartogdammet ef Kingtoni Rybden), is a highly developed sovereign state and widely recognised Great power located in the Langlian Isles, bordered only by the enclaved microstate of Tulvania. The nation was gripped in a bloody civil war throughout much of 2008 but has since formed a strong, internationally competitive economy which has helped it recover quickly from the crisis. It maintains a strong standing army which protects it's sovereign territory and various Overseas Possessions. Through procedures laid out by the WA, the nation has also become an internationally recognised nuclear power, maintaining a small arsenal to help further reduce any potential risk of attack. However it currently defends it's position as a self-declared neutral state, not getting involved in any external conflicts.
The government is a large but efficient constitutional monarchy operating under the doctrine of parliamentary supremacy. The position of Grand Duke is purely ceremonial with the Prime Minister and national Parliament exercising the most political power under the predominantly unitary political system. Since the restoration of democracy the country has successfully maintained a strong independent judiciary headed by the Supreme Court which, unlike similar institutions in other constitutional monarchies, has the power to scrutinise legislation deemed unconstitutional without the interference of parliament. The national currency is the Kingtonian Pound which has survived the various administrations since the unification of the nation in 1812 and is currently used by a number of other nations throughout the world.
The modern Kingtonian state was founded in 1812 as the Kingtonian Empire through the unification of the various nations that occupy the island on which the country predominantly inhabits. Widely considered as the height of Kingtonian economic power and political influence, the empire flourished and unified the Langlian Isles. However, decades of decline at the hands of extremists led to the collapse of the country and the rise of the dictatorial Kingtonian Republic, ruled by the infamous Communist Party. After 70 years of authoritarianism the republic was overthrown and the current administration established, today the country prospers under the democratic system successfully established after the civil war.
For much of it's early history it built up and successfully maintained a vast overseas empire which has since gone after years of slow democratisation and decolonisation, Kington Langley remains a rich and prosperous nation full of culture and pride. Its imperialist colonial past may have left some noticeable remnants of hatred towards the country in many of it's former colonies but it successfully attempts to rebuild it's relations thus helping it maintain it's neutral and respectable status abroad. It has further demonstrated it's dedication to its former territories through the creation of the Commonwealth of Kington Langley, an intergovernmental organisation made up exclusively of nations that were once under the colonial occupation of the nation and that aims to increase diplomatic, economic and social relations. It was formerly a heavily industrialised nation that produced a sizeable amount of a wide variety of manufactured goods for the international market however it has since become a net importer of it's resources with the national economy having almost completed the slow transition to the tertiary sector with primary sector output in areas such as manufacturing and mining now only forming around 20% of the total GDP.
The name "Kington Langley" was first used during the 1700s in the Mayonian-Kingsmouth Commonwealth to refer to the widely envisioned unified state on the island of Great Langley ruled from the south. 'Kington' is a reference to the ancient Kingtonii people that developed the region's first complex civilization and from whom the majority of the population in the south are directly descended. 'Langley' is taken from the name of the island itself to signify the desired expanse of the nation's sovereignty, subsuming all the historic kingdoms and republics on the island into a single, unitary state. This claim is sometimes disputed by historians as 'Langley' could also be a reference to the Langlian Isles region itself. Since it is a well-known fact of national history that early Kingtonian monarchs and politicians sought to unify the entire region (succeeding until the independence of Lucytonia) this claim has created a significant divide among historians.
Therefore, Kington Langley is said to mean the 'Island of the Kingtonians' or literally the 'Island that is ruled by the Kingtonian people'
Pre-unificationThe first known permanant human settlement on the island of Great Langley is believed to be around 20,000 years ago when a land bridge existed between the isles and areas that already maintained a steady
During the middle ages, the island was encompassed by several warring kingdoms and city states. The largest and most powerful of these nations which is widely considered to be one of the longest lasting and most successful nations in the region's history was the Kingsmouth Republic which lasted from the collapse of the Kingtonii Kingdom to it's eventual annexation by the Kingdom of Kingsford in 1438. Due to it's age and influence, it has contributed to many of the unique traditions of the Kingtonian people and also other areas of the Langlian Isles through it's various colonies that it maintained at different periods throughout it's history. The Kingdom of Kingsford was the major power in the northern regions for much of the history of the islands, conquering the Kingsmouth Republic and establishing several institutions that continued into the new unified nation of Kington Langley, it had one of the largest armies in the region's history which it raised from an early attempt at conscription.
By the early modern period, nationalist views among the majority of the island's population had created the idea of a 'united Great Langley'. This idea had led to increased hostilities between all nation who sought to achieve this goal for themselves, at the start of the early modern period there was around 125 nations and city states, by the 1800s there was only 7. While the Kingsmouth Republic had collapsed, the successor state was just, if not more, powerful. The Kingdom of Mayo (founded by the historic Mayo family) entered a personal union with the City State of Kingsmouth to create the Mayonian-Kingsmouth Commonwealth. The territory encompassed by the state could only be challenged by the Kingtonii Kingdom at it's height, it maintained a massive standing army which it used to 'persuade' nations to accept it's various diplomatic propositions which allowed it to exist for 50 years without being in a war.
Main article: Unification of Great Langley
By the end of the 19th century, the Mayonian-Kingsmouth Commonwealth had witnessed several internal protests demanding a unified 'Kingtonian nation'. While nationalism had grown among the population since the early modern era, the few nations that remained were generally indifferent to the idea and had all but abandoned the policy of unification by force and adopted a policy of isolationism from the other states on the island. The commonwealth therefore, using its hegemony over the region, proposed an act of unification to every state on the island which, once signed, would dissolve the signatory state and give it's sovereign territory to the newly created nation of 'Kington Langley'. While the prestige and military power of the commonwealth intimidated 5 of the larger nations to sign the treaty, the two other great power nations of the region, Kingdom of Wexchester and the Kingdom of Kingsford, refused to agree to the terms outlined in the treaty and demanded their nations remain independent or at least several aspects be amended to suit their wishes. The refusal led to a major and bloody war between the commonwealth and the two states which lasted for 5 years and resulted in the death of almost 1 million people.
With the eventual defeat of both kingdoms and their signatures acquired, the Treaty of Unification 1812 was passed in the Mayonian-Kingsmouth Parliament. The act dissolved all the nations on the island (including the commonwealth) and established the 'Empire of Kington Langley' which claimed the island of Great Langley and several other smaller islands surrounding it. The designated monarch of the new nation was the ex-monarch of the Kingdom of Mayo, the official title for the Head of State became 'Emperor of the Kingtonians'. While obtaining the necessary signatories to form the state was difficult and resulted in a war, the process of unification itself was relatively peaceful with the majority of the incorporated population viewing the action positively, while rebellions were rare during the process the largest was the Kingsford uprising 1813 which resulted in the death of 120 revolutionaries.
Main article: Kingtonian EmpireThe democratic make up of the empire allowed it to prosper both financially and culturally, the empire entered a long period of major economic growth which eventually led to Kingtonian domination of the regional market and is often seen as the cause of the slow economic downfall of the neighbouring Luciton Empire and the King Islands. Along with promoting economic capitalism, it also promoted education, research and experimentation within the cultural aspects of society. This led to a series of invention and cultural revolutions and the global adoption of many Kingtonian created products, the experimentation however did not stop at invention, it was also applied to the very governance of the empire with the nation being the first in the region to allocate a separate head of government and also contributed to the creation of several revolutionary governmental departments which had not been seen in the isles before and continue to make up the cabinet of Kington Langley today.
As well as leading the world on the cultural and economic front, it commanded a vast overseas empire that stretched to countless continents. These numerous territories were actively protected by a grand and highly-trained imperial military which was world renowned for their superior equipment and skills on the battlefield, while Kingtonian nationals lower than officer rank in the army outside of the Langlian Isles were rare, the establishment of locally-recruited colonial militias allowed the Kingtonian military to maintain an almost universal presence around the world. Unlike today it maintained an active presence on the international battlefield, founding many historical military alliances and contributing greatly in a number of historic conflicts and skirmishes. During the reign of the first few emperors the empire invested in and focused heavily on expansion of its borders, eventually becoming a highly populous nation with a total colonial population reaching hundreds of millions. However, the size and prosperity of the colonial expeditions led to a swift downfall of Kingtonian overseas endeavours as the largest and most financially prosperous of the nation's colonies had been granted independence by the early 1920s, a major cause for the downfall and collapse of the empire.
While the nation was often renowned as a place of democracy and freedom, it had a fierce expansionist foreign policy when it came to the Langlian Isles which often led to the intimidation of other regional states. With the idea of Langlian unification coming from philosophers and politicians in the Kingtonian Empire, the nation sought to unite the entire region under its rulership by diplomatic or military means. When the idea was proposed to the Luciton Empire after several years of careful diplomatic negotiations regarding further integration, it was rejected and pre-negotiation agreements forcibly restored. Thus the 2-year Kingtonian-Luciton War began and the Kingtonians invaded and annexed the territory. The relations between the empire and the King Islands however was much less tense with Kingtonians viewing the people of the King Islands as historical cultural allies. A trading agreement between the two nations meant that the islands had managed to sustain their economy for several years but even with the economic aid of the Kingtonian Empire, the economic performance of the kingdom was falling annually. It was eventually predicted in 1832 that the country would only be 2 years from bankruptcy and voluntarily offered their territory to the empire, completing the regional unification process sought after for generations in Kington Langley.
End of the empire
Main article: Kingtonian RevolutionLucytonia was established, when 1900 came into sight, the empire was a shell of its former prosperity.
The King Islands saw similar rioting due to the economic hardships, however the majority of the population remained loyal to Kington Langley thus any unrest was minor and dissipated quickly, the various independence organisations established throughout the islands also did not attract enough attention in order to sustain themselves indefinitely. Elsewhere in the empire the majority of colonies that had not already received independence saw violent eruptions of unrest, by the early 1930s the colonial empire had shrunk to a few minor territorial possessions and several tiny islands around the world as the most profitable and populous colonies had successfully rebelled against Kingtonian rule.
With the loss of Luciton, the widespread unrest in the King Islands and rapid decline of empire on the international stage, the citizens of the Kingtonian Empire who had once seen the nation as a symbol of peace and unity had now turned on the government and favoured a transition to a parliamentary republic. The government attempted to suppress republican and politically radical organisations by introducing nationwide propaganda to change the opinion of the public towards the monarchy and the current administration. This however had little effect as several cities throughout the nation frequently came under attack through mass rioting leading to the beginning of the Kingtonian Revolution, the number of protesters quickly became too large for the national law enforcement manpower to handle and the army was forced to take over. While the army swiftly took over the role of keeping the protests orderly, the nation never initiated martial law at a leadership level and there were no recorded incidents of soldiers opening fire on civilian crowds despite orders being given to do so. The rioting eventually arrived in the capital which forced the government to flee to the royal palace and barricade themselves inside with the royal family, the people's wishes were eventually granted however as the military barricade around the palace was broken and the political leadership of the country was captured. The Communist Party installed itself as the leading party of the new republican regime, quickly reconstructing the multi-party system based around a republican system. Within 2 weeks of the victory of the revolution the monarchy was officially abolished and Kington Langley was declared a republic. Despite the loyalist King Islands announcing their will to accept the deposed monarch into their territory with open arms, the royal family retreated to their summer residence in the northern region of the country which the new government permitted them to maintain.
Main article: Kingtonian Republicuniversal healthcare system. However this quickly led to semi-isolationism as the government slowly withdrew the country from several international schemes and intergovernmental organisations, this led to sharp economic decline and the beginning of the dictatorship era of the republic which would prevail for the majority of its existence.
When the communists were predicted to lose the first planned elections under the republic, the government systematically dissolved the democratic system in the country to remain in power leading to the eventual establishment of the wider-known one-party state dictatorship era of the republic. The national armed forces were expanded dramatically and the powers of the police were increased significantly, leading to the inevitable drop in public popularity for the communist party and the beginning of popular support for the return of the previous monarchic system of government. By the early 1990s Kington Langley had lost the majority of its respect in the eyes of the international community and had become a militarily and politically (but not culturally) isolationist society.
Civil War & aftermath
The protests against the republic were often seen as an inevitable consequence to mass policy reform however a nationwide civil war was not expected by the political elite or international observers. The initial uprising in a southern training facility owned by the Ministry of Defence became the catalyst for the civil war, the regiment stationed there had turned against their officers and opened fire on republican supporters. While this was initially sept aside by the republican administration as a minor uprising, large numbers of the general republic and the armed forces took up arms with the rebels and successfully toppled the communist government, the republican era ended in 2008, after almost 70 years.
The new, monarchist regime reinstated the monarchy with the pretender to the throne of the Kingtonian Empire returning as 'Grand Duke of Kington Langley'. The first constitution that was drawn up immediately following the war was very basic and contained several loopholes, most however were minor and quickly amended as time progressed. It was however discovered later that one of these several loopholes granted the monarch ultimate authority over the political system leading to a small international crisis with the WA that refused to categorise Kington Langley as anything other than an absolute monarchy. While there was initial public worry over potential amendment to this clause, the monarch was a strong believer in democratic government and vowed not to interfere with the democratic process, thus the authoritarian powers of the monarch where swiftly removed without any resistance.
The constitution has since been updated and a constitutional monarchic form of government has been carefully outlined. The current administration has attempted to undo all the isolationist reforms carried out by the republicans, the economy has recently been impacted by a localised recession through the commencing of mass nationwide redevelopment projects aimed at removing all communist era buildings but has since recovered through the significant drop in unemployment as a result. The government has also issued a formal declaration of neutrality to the international community stating that it does 'not seek to be an aggressor nation in a conflict without reason', receiving much praise and respect from fellow nations and intergovernmental organisations. A recent election was expecting the introduction of a Labour government however the Royalist Conservatives remained in power and still control a majority in Parliament, allowing for policies and redevelopment projects set in motion after the civil war to continue without risk of interruption or termination.
GeographyTulvania, a microstate which is the only nation with which Kington Langley shares a land border. It also exercises sovereignty over several smaller islands within 20 miles of the coast, the largest settlement in Kington Langley that is not located on the main island is Port Holmes which is located in the Grosvaer Islands to the north of the country and has a population of around 1 million. The nation itself is located in the Langlian Isles which is made up of three independent states of Kington Langley, Tulvania and Lucytonia, and the King Islands which is a crown dependency of Kington Langley.
Statistics in 2000 revealed that only 8% of the island contains any large forested areas while urban development encompassed 45%, the national capital of Kingsmouth is the largest urban area in the country and the centre of the nation's economical activities with a population of approximately 10 million people making it the largest city in the commonwealth. Due to the geological history of the islands, the majority of the nation lies several hundred metres above sea level with steep cliff faces being more common than flat, sandy coastal areas.
Kington Langley is a nation of climatic extremes. The Langlian Isles are located in the path of a cold oceanic current from the Arctic that causes the temperatures in the region as a whole to drop to an average of -15C during the winter which often causes problems with national infrastructure and accessibility to rural areas of the country can often become impossible. The temperature during the summer months however varies due to the size of the island, the northernmost major settlement of Port Holmes often stays in the low to mid 20s due to its proximity to the polar regions while the capital in the south usually sees an average temperature of 30-25, however this is partly due to the urban heat island effect. Many regional climates exist with the main being located in the Langlian Mountains in the north-western area of the islands, often staying in the low teens during the summer. The size of the island also prevents the cooling effects of the oceanic currents reaching to the innermost regions which often sees temperatures in central cities like Wexchester being several degrees warmer than the coastal settlements such as Kingsford which is located less than 200 miles to the north.
Main Article: Subdivisions of Kington LangleyWhile Kington Langley at a national level is a unitary state, regional and local divisions have existed since the formation of the first complex societies on the island BCE, however, the process of the creation of Kington Langley means that few of these administrative divisions follow the boundaries laid out by pre-unification states. Today, rather than being based on ancient national boundaries, they are based
The nation is divided into 6 regional assemblies, each holding a small degree of autonomy and the ability to pass regional laws such as allocation of public spending to regional institutions and county councils. These devolved powers may be recalled by an act of Parliament however and so are not classed as autonomous 'states' within the country. Below regional is county level, the nation is divided into 15 unitary county councils (not including Kingsmouth, Kingsford & Wexchester) which are affected by the laws passed by their respective regional assembly and, of course by laws passed by the national Parliament. Below county level is the start of a further 2 divisions known as 'local government'. These categories include borough councils, largest of the local government divisions and usually encompass an urban area with a population of 100,000 or more, town councils, which usually contains 1 town with a population of 20,000 or higher, and parish councils which contain either a single large village or a collection of villages or hamlets, parish councils are classed as the lowest administrative division in Kington Langley.
Urban areas in Kington Langley with a population of 3 million or more are designated as 'Greater Regions' (the current three in Kington Langley are as follows: Greater Kingsmouth, Greater Kingsford & Greater Wexchester). Due to the sheer population combined with the density, cities that achieve this status upgrade the local administrative centre from a 'city hall' to a 'greater assembly' and the city is divided up into 'boroughs', each electing a representative to the greater assembly. The larger the population the more numerous the boroughs are. The largest of the city assemblies is the Greater Kingsmouth Assembly which currently is comprised of 100 elected members.
Kington Langley has sovereignty over 4 (or 5 depending definition) territories which have varying degrees of autonomy but are all constitutionally bound to the country. These territories are officially called Overseas Possessions and are the reminants of Kington Langley's colonial past. Seunchang, the Wialen and Corolia Islands, South Grosvaer and the Kingtonian Antarctic Territory are the only remaining overseas territories of Kington Langley with the Antarctic territory having been recently formed and also being largely unrecognised while Suenchang and the Wialen and Corolia Islands have voted to remain territories of Kington Langley through democratic referendums.
The King Islands was officially a territory of Kington Langley until 2008 when it was granted more autonomy due to it's large population before being upgraded to it's current status of a 'Crown Dependency'. However, it is still classed as an Overseas Possession of Kington Langley under Kingtonian Law and not as a seperate 'colonial jurisdiction' like it would be under similar legal systems imposed in other nations.
Kington Langley is a democratic constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy following the Westminster system of governance. With the framework of the country's various ceremonial and administrative practices based around the doctrine of parliamentary supremacy. Grand Duke Thomas II is the head of state of Kington Langley and, while being granted the right to oversee the political workings of the country, the monarch is formally a figurehead and has no real powers to influence the decisions of democratically elected politicians that dictate all aspects of the national government. The constitution of Kington Langley is currently unwritten, being made up of numerous written sources that are collectively kept in the archives of parliament. These include statutes, various judge-made case laws and international treaties that have been signed by and also affect Kington Langley either politically or economically. This unwritten status allows the constitution to be changed at any time through an act of Parliament, thus granting the legislature the right to amend or remove any part of the written and unwritten parts of the national constitution.
Main article: Government of Kington LangleyParliament is sovereign and is constitutionally granted supreme power under the parliamentary form of democratic government practised in Kington Langley. Functioning under a bicameral system, The upper house (House of Lords) is made up of 510 peers, the majority are appointed however several positions remain hereditary and are passed down through inheritance.
The lower house (House of Commons) is composed of 700 democratically elected MPs that each represent a single constituency, by convention this is also the house from which the cabinet and prime minister are drawn from. Legislation is created in Parliament and once it has been approved by both houses it is sent to the monarch for assent however the monarch merely acts as a 'rubber stamp' and is expected to approve all legislation proposed by Parliament otherwise a constitutional crisis and even abolition of the monarchy would follow if the monarch refused. The meeting place for Parliament, while called the 'Houses of Parliament' by the general public and the media, is officially named '1 National Square' and has served as the location of the legislature since 2010 when the current premises was constructed.
The position of Prime Minister is the official head of government of Kington Langley and, unlike other nations with a parliamentary form of government, is officially defined in the constitution rather than being an office of state created merely through long established convention. Doubling as leader of the largest party in Parliament, the Prime Minister is constitutionally subordinate to the legislature and is kept in check by fellow MPs through weekly question times in the Commons. Appointed by the monarch to lead the government following an election, they are not elected directly through popular vote but rather indirectly through the victory of their party in elections. Constitutionally, the monarch is required to accept the decisions of the Prime Minister in government, including abolition of the monarchy.cabinet is the supreme executive body made up of the most senior members of government that each control a national department of state that dictates the policies of their respective areas throughout the whole country. Members are known as cabinet ministers and must be drawn from the legislature, they are chosen by the Prime Minister after his appointment following a general election with the right to be dismissed and replaced at any time by the Prime Minister during the governmental period, all ministers traditionally come from the Prime Minister's political party. Following their appointment they are sworn into the Privy Council of Kington Langley where they formally become ministers of the crown. While allowed to come from either the House of Commons or the House of Lords, democratic convention limits appointments to MPs from the elected lower house, however several ceremonial positions in government are still filled by individuals from the hereditary upper house.
Politics in Kington Langley is dominated by the three largest parties which, in order of size are the Royalist Conservative Party, the Labour Party and the Republican Party which maintain considerable electoral influence over their respective voting populations (combined makes up over 70% of the population). Contrary to other nations that also elect parties using the plurality system of voting, the Commons is populated by a large number of political parties representing people from a wide range of ideologies. However, the large majorities produced by winning parties in elections through the first-past-the-post system means that coalitions through the creation of minority governments are rare. However, as bipartisanship is relatively common in Kingtonian politics, it is not uncommon for coalition groups to be formed by opposition parties to weaken the influence of the ruling government.
From the date of unification, Kington Langley has maintained a policy of neutrality when it comes to wars outside the Langlian Isles and to date has only fought in civil wars and internal conflicts to re-establish peace and stability in democratic states around the world. Outside of military affairs, it is a founding member of several international organisations such as the Commonwealth of Kington Langley and Universal Broadcasting Union. While a former member of the World Assembly, it still works closely with the organisation and it's members. It has also started several successful embassy programmes throughout it's history with the most recent establishing relations with over 100 nations throughout the world. It's neutrality has prevented the country maintaining any important alliances with other nations however it's relationship with Lucytonia is seen as one of the closest unofficial alliances in the world.
It also recently withdrew from the World Assembly but still has an ambassador who attends debates. Kington Langley acts as an observer nation; working with full members to make amended legislation passed better. Its huge decrease in influence has not put a stop on Kington Langley's foreign activities, its embassy program is as popular as ever with more and more nations eagerly seeking to formally establish diplomatic relations.
Currently, the Supreme Court is the nation's highest and most powerful judicial body. It has the power to discard laws enacted by Parliament if it is deemed unconstitutional, however because the Kingtonian constitution is unwritten it may easily be changed by the ruling government to make it constitutional therefore often bringing to question whether or not the judiciary is truly independent from the executive. Reform to the system to establish cemented rules on the separation of powers in Kington Langley is currently being discussed and enforced by Parliament.
Enforcement of the law in Kington Langley is carried out by a national policing authority known as the Royal Kingtonian Police Service, however the three special metropolitan authorities and the city of Harsedon (for historical reasons) maintain completely separate policing organisations. All police officers, regardless of rank, in Kington Langley are forbidden to carry firearms unless they are part of the armed police division which are tasked with major public unrest and serious armed crime. New legislation is however being brought in which will see the majority of officers issued with tasers for use in extreme situations only. The country is split into a number of policing divisions known officially as Constabularies, these divisions help keep the vast number of police officers across the nation organised and so far have been amazingly successful as crime rates are one of the lowest in the region, especially youth related ones.
Main article: Kingtonian Armed ForcesRoyal Kingtonian Army, Royal Kingtonian Navy (which is further divided into the Marines and the Coastguard) and the Royal Kingtonian Air Force are collectively known as the 'Kingtonian Armed Forces' however it is officially known as 'His Majesty's Armed Forces' Since the restoration of democracy, Kington Langley has become a militarily neutral nation, so maintains a modest standing armed forces in proportion to it's total population however maintaining a large enough force to deter even the most confident of attackers with the Royal Kingtonian Army alone consisting of 800,000 personnel. The management of all the branches of the armed forces are under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defence however the majority of decision making powers are granted to the Council of the Armed Forces, a division of the ministry and chaired by the Minister of Defence.
The national armed forces have traditionally been a voluntary service with conscription never being enforced to date. While total government spending has fluctuated heavily over the past 100 years it currently spends 8% of it's total GDP on defence allowing it maintain large numbers of powerful vehicles and technologically advanced gear making it somewhat of a formidable force for anything up to double it's size depending on the enemy's technological capabilities. The armed forces are split into three main branches which function independently from one another in the field however work closely together strategically at all times to ensure maximum efficiency and universal knowledge of each branch's movements, this allows for a centralised command structure with relative autonomy to the individual sections.
Apart from Kington Langley itself, it maintains an active presence in the majority of the nation's overseas territories as the government remains responsible for all matters of defence, regardless of their autonomy. Both Seunchang and the Wialen and Corolia Islands operate a large facility that is jointly operated by the army and air force allowing the country to maintain a global presence and deploy troops quickly anywhere in the world if the need should ever arise.
The Kington Langley Special Forces comprise of specially trained units from all branches of the armed forces. While a seperate jurisdiction within the Ministry of Defence and not technically part of the armed forces, the various divisions work closely with their respective branches (mainly the army and navy). This service allows for the swift deployment of well-trained and mobile troops to handle counter-terrorism situations and advanced amphibious operations, the majority of it's missions remain protected by the government from the public.
Even though it maintains an extremely large standing force, it adopts the policy of so-called 'coalition conflict' meaning it rarely enters a war without being part of an international coalition of other combatants. As well as this, it usually takes on peacekeeping and humanitarian roles instead of actively engaging enemy troops. The most recent conflict in which Kington Langley fought single-handedly was the Kingtonian Civil War however the internal nature of the conflict means a unified Kingtonian task force was non-existent.
Tourism and Culture
Main article: Culture of Kington Langley
Despite enduring almost a century of communist rule, the national attitude towards the majority of aspects of life mirror that of citizens living in any historically stable and democratic nation. Since the formation of the country in 1812, the nation has contributed widely to the international community through the realms of art and literature, architecture and cuisine which are known throughout the world due to the influence of the former Kingtonian colonial empire. Politically, despite living under ideological extremes, the Kingtonian people are world renowned for their tolerance and liberal democratic values which makes the country a popular migrant destination.
Tourism, while smaller than some nations, plays an important role in the Kingtonian economy. 2009 saw a peak in tourism with over 20 million people visiting the nation (mainly Kingsmouth) annually. It is because of this that Kingsmouth has been widely recognised as the most international city in the commonwealth, the region and one of the best known in the world. The tourism industry overall contributes as much as 2 billion pounds to the economy and this number is expanding annually as Kington Langley and its traditions and influence expand slowly on the international stage.
Main article: Economy of Kington LangleyKington Langley has a mixed market economy with a slight policy of protectionism imposed on the various large and important industries of the country. While it is reluctant at times to allow it's most valuable companies to fall to foreign ownership, it has a strong and competative economy which ranks as 'all-consuming'. The nation has a relatively large public sector which currently takes up a whopping 39% of the national economy however the private sector encompassing the other 61% makes up for the annual loses created by this high percentage. As the nation is militarily neutral, it focuses heavily on expanding it's
The economic hub of the nation is located in the capital city of Kingsmouth with the central business district forming the financial capital of the region. The vast majority of trading within the nation and the Langlian Isles as a whole is performed on the bustling Kingsmouth Stock Exchange which is renowned for it's relative stability plus it operates the coveted KSER 100 Index which trades the stock of the most powerful corporations within Kington Langley and many other international corporations that maintain a secondary listing on the stock exchange. The central Bank of Kington Langley, which regulates the national currency and exchange rates, sits at the heart of the financial district along with the Commonwealth Bank which acts as the monetary regulator of the much larger Commonwealth of Kington Langley.
While economic legislation within Kington Langley maintains a high level of economic freedom, the various social welfare policies mean that the average income tax level in the nation is currently 68% however VAT levels are currently frozen at 12%. Taxes and tarriffs on trade vary as the nation operates a large number of international free trade agreements plus through various single government agreements and through international organisations such as the Kingtonian Commonwealth.
Kington Langley is often viewed as an advocate of minor protectionism as many large Kingtonian companies recieve generous amounts of funding (which would decrease the likelihood of being purchased by foreign investors due to financial troubles) from the government and there is even legislation in place to protect so-defined 'key industries' from falling into foreign ownership to protect domestic jobs and services under the National Industries Act 2009. This argument is also strengthened further by the large number of state-owned enterprises in the nation and the wide range of services and industrial areas they cover with the nationalised transport sectors such as bus and rail making the entrance and establishment of private companies impossible. The government recently stated that it viewed the domestic ownership of essential services such as transport, gas, electricity and healthcare as vital.
The national currency is the Kingtonian Pound which is currently about KL£0.6 - $1
ManufacturingFor several centuries Kington Langley and it's predecessor states flourished through naval trade however the long period of modernisation and de-industrialisation has left the country as a net-importer for the past few decades. The manufacturing sector is far from dead however with the Kingtonian motor industry being one of the most advanced and competative in the world, the technological sector is thriving with a florishing satellite construction programme which has led to 90% of satellites launched and in use by Kington Langley designed and constructed domestically.
Kington Langley has always been a fast-paced nation with a vast road and motorway network that allows the population of over 84 million travel relatively quickly and trouble-free to any part of the country. All roads in the nation are maintained by the Public Roadways Agency however the majority of cities maintain the road infrastructure with these powers usually entrusted to various city and town councils. There are currently no toll motorways in Kington Langley with no current plans to introduce them.
Rail transport in Kington Langley is also both large however efficient. The operation of train services and the ownership and maintainance of the infrastructure remains nationalised with Kingtonian Rail operating around 98% of all public rail services and currently owning 100% of the national rail network therefore making it the largest landowner in the country. The majority of the railway network remains unelectrified however a mass government scheme is underway to electrify upto 80% of the network by 2016, for the moment however only 20% is made up of fully operating electrified rail. The majority of trains within the country are KR110 Mk IIs which have been in operation since the early 1980s, the electrification project has also led to the intiation of a modernisation scheme with the introduction of the KR180s in 2010 to replace the entire fleet by 2013.
Unlike other nations, all public transport services accross the country are handled by a single nationalised company. InterCity is tasked with the operation and maintainance of nationwide bus and underground services and also a small number of inner city taxi services, the expanse of this nationalisation scheme has often led to debate over a possible privitisation however the current system remains in place. Private firms still thrive within the transport industry however with a current divide between privatised and nationalised transport standing at around 30/70.
EnergyWhile Kington Langley boasts a flourishing competative economy, the production and distribution of energy in Kington Langley is relatively relaxed compared to other nations in terms of competition. Since the early 1950s the majority of facilities are owned, operated and maintained by Kingtonian Energy which, to this day, remains fully a nationalised company
Kington Langley relies heavily on nuclear energy production over 23% of all generated power comes from the various nuclear power station which can be seen in great numbers throughout the country. Disagreement with this system remains lower than average however recent events has led to the government announcing a controversial end to nuclear energy generation by 2020 at the latest.
In 2010 Kington Langley was both the largest consumer and producer of energy in the region and was also ranked highly in both these categories for global measurements. The vast amounts of energy produced by the country for it's population of over 84 million has helped create a number of energy exporting contracts with neighbouring nations which contribute large sums to the national economy annually, Lucytonia currently imports around 7% of it's overall energy from Kington Langley however this is not taking into account the profit made through the high presence of Kingtonian energy companies within the nation. A recent study conducted by the National Statistics Agency which revealed the largest contributing resources to energy production within the country, as of 2010 the composition of production was oil (40%), nuclear (23%), natural gas (18%), coal (13%), renewables (6%).
Science and technology
When it comes to the supplying of military equipment, the nation is extremely self-sufficient with aerospace giant Russell-Martin supplying over 90% of aircraft, vehicles and equipment to the national armed forces, including the reliable RM146 fighter jet. The nation heavily funded the research of many aspects of air travel that modern civilisation takes for granted such as the jet turbine and advanced autopilot systems which makes it a key player in the commercial aviation industry as well.
Often known for it's keen interests in the study of the universe, the Kington Langley Space Agency (commonly known as KLSA) has seen many pioneering missions in it's short existence from manned moon landings to supplying key technological components to a number of international space station projects. Due to the uncertainty of space research it receives less funding than some space agencies around the world but continues to work closely within the international community.
Main article: Demography of Kington Langley
Kington Langley has a population of 84 million people which is slowly expanding, mainly through a recent rise in immigration. The population of the nation has been historically growing rapidly since the early 1800s when the newly formed Kingtonian Empire's economy boosted quality of life in the entire region. As a result, infant mortality fell tenfold and net immigration to the nation increased dramatically for a period of 50 years before levelling off around the 1890s. By the time the empire had collapsed in 1932, the population had doubled from 30 to 60 million inhabitants. While population growth slowed dramatically with the rise of communism, it had managed to climb gradually until 2008 when the nation reached the 84 million mark after the civil war and the restoration of democracy.
The number of people living in the nation is reflected by the three largest cities in the country. These are (in order of size) Kingsmouth, Kingsford and Wexchester; each have a total combined urban population of approximately 14 million inhabitants which is around 16% of the entire national population and not taking into account their respective metropolitan populations. Such large numbers would usually lead to space and efficiency problems on a large scale however the mass amounts of government spending ensures the nation fuly keeps functioning at it's maximum potential, the administrative aspects of governing these increasing large urban areas are complex and heavily planned before being put into action. During the 1980s, the communist government attempted several so-called 'dispersement projects' to redistribute the national population evenly throughout the country to prevent the increasing problem of overcrowding, this had little effect. The population has historically been much larger in the southern portion of the nation than in the north (apart from Kingsford), this is due to it's proximity to the prosperous international trading routes and it's more temperate climate.
|Largest urban areas in Kington Langley|
|Urban area||Population||Principle settlement||Urban area||Population||Principle settlement|
|1||Kingsmouth Metropolitan Area||10,820,000||Kingsmouth||11||Brominham City||456,000||Brominham|
|2||Kingsford Metropolitan Area||3,137,000||Kingsford||12||Redport Metropolitan Zone||381,000||Redport|
|3||Wexchester Metropolitan Area||1,043,000||Wexchester||13||Greater Wellmingston||316,000||Wellmingston|
|4||Greater Purston||1,010,000||Purston||14||Drax Valley Urban Area||304,000||Draxmouth|
|5||Farnoa Urban Zone||935,000||Farnoa||15||Mayoport Metropolitan Urban Zone||247,000||Mayoport|
|6||Greater Nos||763,000||Nos||16||Greater Rotherby||229,000||Rotherby|
|7||Harsedon Urban Area||529,000||Harsedon||17||Hessiton Urban Area||215,000||Hessiton|
|8||Grosvaer Metropolitan Zone||508,000||Grosvaer City||18||Vareford Urban Area||194,000||Vareford|
|9||Port Holmes Urban Zone||492,000||Port Holmes||19||Maerdon Metropolitan Zone||162,000||Maerdon|
|10||Dorston Urban Zone||473,000||Dorston||20||Port Advington||158,000||Advington|
Kington Langley is an extremely multicultural and tolerant society, the majority of cities with a population over 2 million are made up of around 20-40% inhabitants of foreign birth. 'White Kingtonian' still makes up around 95% of the total population which, for a nation of it's size, makes immigrant populations much more disperse than the global average. This is however due to the natural assimilation of white immigrants and their decendents over a long period of time making the actual percentage of people of so-called 'true' Kingtonian ancestry much smaller. Due to historical ties, the largest minority group in the country are Lucytonians which are more numerous in the northern regions due to it's proximity to Lucytonia. This is most evident in the northern city of Kingsford, where several Lucytonian communities have sprung up around the city.
The oldest minority communities in the country are wholly located in Kingsmouth, having started becoming the new home for many foreign citizens during the time of the Kingsmouth Republic in the 1400s when it became a flourishing merchant and trading city. With the continued rising levels of immigration today, higher estimates suggest that up to 60% of the urban population of the city is of foreign birth making it the most multiculteral settlement in both Kington Langley and the Langlian Isles.
LanguagesEnglish (British English) which is spoken as a first language by around 98% of the entire population. For much of the region's history Kingtonian, a north Germanic language which is closely related to the Scandinavian languages and a subsidiary language of Langlian, was the most widely spoken throughout what is now Kington Langley. The transition from Kingtonian to English was marked by the nation's expansion as a colonial power, seeing how popular English had become the nation decided to embrace the language as their own. Today, only a small handful or regions in the northern areas of the nation still enforce bilingualism however awareness of it's fragile state is increasing. To help protect the language from extinction, the Kingtonian government took steps to declare it an official regional language which allowed it to receive state protection and publicly-funded restoration projects.
Immigration to Kington Langley has seen a rise in the variety of languages spoken in the nation. While mainly confined to the largest cities languages such as French, Spanish, Portuguese, German and Dutch are become much more widespread compared to statistics gathered 100 years ago. While the number of languages spoken in the nation is greatly increasing, the majority of the domestic population is monolingual as the government does not enforce a foreign languages policy in the state educational system.
Main article: Education in Kington Langley
While the national administration of education in Kington Langley is under the sole jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, the day-to-day running has traditionally been devolved to various local authorities such as county, city and town councils. Education for citizens between the ages of 4 and 18 is compulsory and, unless private education is sought, provided free by the state (funded through taxation). Voluntary higher education in the form of university for people over the age of 18 has traditionally maintained extreme popularity within the country with the University of Kingsmouth currently ranking as one of the most prestigious higher learning institutions in the world. Literacy currently stands at 99.8% and results in all forms of primary, secondary and tertiary examinations are the highest in the region and rank highly on many international tables.
Kington Langley is almost exclusively a secular country with only 2% of citizens declaring any form of religious views. Of these two percent, the vast majority practice the Anglican denomination of Protestant Christianity which was once the dominant form of religion within the islands prior to the secularisation of the country during the 1700s and early 1800s. Other religions currently present in Kington Langley include but are not limited to Catholicism as well as other forms of Christianity, Islam and Judaism which all form part of the religious views of the immigrant community of Kington Langley. While these are the largest, there are several dozens more religions active within the nation however they are confined almost exclusively to major cities such as Kingsmouth or Kingsford due to their limited following.
Main article: Healthcare in Kington LangleyThe healthcare system in Kington Langley is dominated by the Royal Kingtonian Health Service (RKHS), the publicly funded national healthcare provider which offers free-at-the-point of use services that are paid for through general taxation. With over 19% of national GDP spent on the service, treatment of the RKHS is some of the best
Alongside the public system operates a much smaller private healthcare industry which provides essentially equal levels of care and treatment to citizens willing to pay either up front or int he form of health insurance. As the vast majority of private healthcare users still use the RKHS for regular consultation with GPs and for minor treatment, most opt to pay up-front for medical costs when using private healthcare. The largest private healthcare provider in Kington Langley by far is General Health which is currently used by approximately 8 out of the 10% of people who regularly use private treatment. Since 2012 the government has attempted to encourage cooperation between public and private healthcare sectors by allowing companies such as General Health use RKHS-owned hospitals for advanced surgeries and treatments, allowing private healthcare providers to offer the same level of treatment to paying customers in exchange for shorter waiting lists, this scheme has proven popular with the majority of citizens.
As of 2013, public spending on healthcare has risen significantly to reach above the national average as a significant 13% of national GDP is dedicated to the public healthcare system. This has led to the RKHS becoming one of the most renowned public healthcare providers in the world, maintaining large quantities of the most modern equipment in the world and operating mostly within hospitals and facilities constructed only in the last 5-10 years.
- Military of Kington Langley
- Parliament of Kington Langley
- Kington Langley and the World Assembly
- Kingtonian Overseas Possessions
- Supreme Court of Kington Langley