Federation of East Africa
| National motto:
|National anthem: N/A|
|Official languages||English,Amharic, Tigrinya, Arabic, Italian and French|
|Ethnic Groups||Oromo , Amhara, Somali, Tigray, Gurage, Welayta, Tigrinya, Tigre, Afar, Saho, Kunama, Along with an undefined number of other small ethnic groups|
The Federal Politburo
The Federation Assembly
The Federal Supreme Court
|Federation Member States|
-Saint Helena Island
November 26, 20XX
||Over 10 Billion|
480,734 square miles
Ras Dashen (14,928 ft)
The United Federation of East African Nations, Federation of East Africa, or simply the Federation is a international federation that was originally formed between the states of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Djibouti. It is a pro-capitalist, democratic, and constitutional federal super-state that is also a strong military power within Africa. The Federation an its government is often said to stress, at least nominally, the values of universal liberty, equality, justice, peace, and cooperation. One of the only pure democracies within Africa, the Federation is not without its problems.
The most instrumental nation to the foundation of the Federation was Ethiopia. A landlocked country located in the Horn of Africa, the country naturally bordered both Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the east as well as Sudan to the west, Somalia to the east, and Kenya to the south. Ethiopia has been an independent nation since ancient times, being one of the oldest countries in the world. A monarchy for most of its history, the Ethiopian dynasty traces its roots to the 2nd century BC. Besides being an ancient country, Ethiopia is one of the oldest sites of human existence known to scientists today, having yielded some of humanity's oldest traces. It may be the region from which Homo sapiens first set out for the Middle East and points beyond. When Africa was divided up by European powers at the Berlin Conference, Ethiopia was one of only two countries that retained its independence. It was one of only four African members of the League of Nations. Modern Ethiopia and its borders before joining the Federation were a result of significant territorial reductions in the north and expansion in the south toward the Federation's present borders, owing to several migrations and commercial integration as well as conquests, particularly by Emperor Menelik II and Ras Gobena. In 1974, the dynasty led by Haile Selassie was overthrown as civil wars intensified. Since then, Ethiopia has seen a variety of governmental systems. By the time of the Founding of the Federation, Ethiopia was a Constitutional Monarchy not recognized by the international community.
Eritrea was an authoritarian state whose history was tied to its strategic position on the southern, African side of the Red Sea; with a coastline that extends more than 1,000 km. From across the seas came various invaders (and colonizers) such as the South Arabians hailing from the present-day Yemen area, the Ottoman Turks, the Portuguese from Goa (India), the Egyptians, the British and, in the 19th century, the Italians. Over the centuries, invaders also came from the neighboring countries of Africa to the south (Ethiopia) and to the west (Sudan). However, present-day Eritrea was largely affected by the Italian invaders of the 19th century. In the period following the opening of the Suez canal in 1869, when European powers scrambled for territory in Africa and tried to establish coaling stations for their ships, Italy invaded and occupied Eritrea. On January 1, 1890, Eritrea officially became a colony of Italy. In 1936, it became a province of Italian East Africa, along with Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland. The Commonwealth armed forces expelled those of Italy in 1941 and took over the administration of the country which had been set up by the Italians. The British continued to administer the territory under a UN Mandate until 1951 when Eritrea was federated with Ethiopia as per UN resolution 390(A) under the prompting of the United States adopted in December 1950; the resolution was adopted after a referendum to consult the people of Eritrea. The strategic importance of Eritrea, due to its Red Sea coastline and mineral resources, was the main cause for the federation with Ethiopia, which in turn led to Eritrea's annexation as Ethiopia's 14th province in 1962. This was the culmination of a gradual process of takeover by the Ethiopian authorities, a process which included a 1959 edict establishing the compulsory teaching of Amharic, the main language of Ethiopia, in all Eritrean schools. The lack of regard for the Eritrean population led to the formation of an independence movement in the early 1960s, which erupted into a 30-year war against successive Ethiopian governments until the collapse of the Ethiopian government in 1991. Eritrea declared its independence 1993 but quickly devolved into a lose coalition of localized governments, as the country was too weak economically to support a centralized political unit. It wasn't until after the Dominion Wars that infighting between local warlords stopped and a single faction took power and created a centralized government. By the time of the founding of the Federation, Eritrea was ruled by the Democratic Justice Front. Authoritarian by nature , the DJF quickly arrested critics and opposition groups to their power, arresting them publicly and executing them privately.
Djibouti was a a semi-presidential republic, with executive power in the central government, and legislative power in both the government and parliament. The history of Djibouti goes back thousands of years to a time when populations in the area traded hides and skins for the perfumes and spices of ancient Egypt, India and China. Through close contacts with the adjacent Arabian Peninsula for more than 1,000 years, the Somali and Afar ethnic groups in the region became among the first populations on the continent to embrace Islam. From 1862 to 1894, the land on the north side of the Gulf of Tadjoura was called Obock, and was ruled by Somali Sultans. France first gained a foothold in the region through various treaties signed between 1883 and 1887. In 1894, Léonce Lagarde established a permanent French administration in the city of Djibouti and named the region French Somaliland. It lasted from 1896 until 1967, when it was renamed the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas. In 1958, on the eve of neighboring Somalia's independence in 1960, a referendum was held in Djibouti to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France. The referendum turned out in favor of a continued association with France, partly due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans. There was also widespread vote rigging, with the French expelling thousands of Somalis before the referendum reached the polls. The majority of those who voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favor of joining a united Somalia as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later. Djibouti finally gained its independence from France in 1977 and Hassan Gouled Aptidon, a French-groomed Somali who campaigned for a yes vote in the referendum of 1958, eventually wound up as the nation's first president (1977–1991). However, widespread economic problems would impoverish the country and see the collapse of the country's centralized government. The country would be without a centralized government for generations until the end of the Dominion Wars, when an militia group-turned political party known as the People's Progressive Front used Dominion Weapons bought left over from the War to come to power. By the time of the founding of the Federation, the PPF had proven themselves Democratic Socialists and stabilized government in Djibouti.
The strongest militarily of the three founding nations, Ethiopia used its military prowess initially bring the other two nations of Eritrea and Djibouti to the conference table. The very first meeting between the three territories was a three-day private summit. Prime Minister Zelalem Wolde-Yohannes of Ethiopia hosted the first summit, with President of State Umar Abdu Ahmed of Eritrea and President Hassan Abdallah Mohamed of Djibouti both in attendance. What followed from this summit was a six-month private dialogue between the three territories that would culminate in the signing of the constitution for the Federation. Though political opposites, Eritrea agreed to joining the Federation for the sole reason of gaining the military might of Ethiopia. For during this time, Eritrea's northern territories were within the border of Ulgania and the government desperately wanted them back. Though the Eritrean government had its own militia, it was certainly not a formal army and would pose no threat to Ulgania and its military superiority. However, agreements were reached between Prime Minister Wolde-Yohannes and strongman Ahmed that would see to it that one of the Federation's initial goals would be to retrieve this territory. Djibouti's cooperation and agreement to join the Federation was even more apparent from the start. Though they had again created a stabilized government, President Mohamed's government was facing collapse due to the overwhelming poverty of the Djibouti state. By joining the Federation, Djibouti would see an influx of foreign investment from Ethiopia and Eritrea. This would not only go to stabilize the fragile government but also stimulate and help grow the Djibouti economy. Finally Ethiopia, the mastermind behind the idea of the Federation, would not only bring take out two rogue state's that were seen as security threats by the Wolde-Yohannes government but also gain an extensive coastline for trade. Thus it was a win-win situation for all three states and on November 26, 20XX all three heads of state gathered in the Ethiopian city of Axum and signed the constitution of the United Federation of East African Nations. The ceremony was the first televised event and publicly acknowledged meeting between the three states, serving as their new state's official declaration of existence to the global community.
Government and Politics
The Federation of East African Nations is organized as a voluntary federation, which includes all nations and all people who voluntarily join by national referendum as well as all lands, rivers, lakes and coastlines of those member states. The Government of the Federation of East African Nations is non-military and is democratic in its own structure, with ultimate sovereignty residing in all the people who live within the Federation. The authority and powers granted to the Federation Government are limited to those defined in the Constitution for the Federation of East African Nations, applicable to problems and affairs which transcend national boundaries, leaving to national governments jurisdiction over the internal affairs of the respective nations but consistent with the authority of the Federation Government to protect universal human rights as defined in the Constitution. The broad functions of the Federation of East African Nations are to prevent war, secure disarmament, and resolve territorial and other disputes between member states that endanger peace and human rights. The Federation seeks to protect universal human rights, including life, liberty, security, democracy, and equal opportunities in life. It seeks to obtain for all people the conditions required for equitable economic and social development and for diminishing social differences. It regulates trade, communications, transportation, currency, standards, use of resources, and other global and international processes. The Federation protects the environment and the ecological fabric of life from all sources of damage and controls technological innovations whose effects transcend national boundaries for the purpose of keeping a safe, healthy and happy home for all people. Finally, the Federation seeks to devise and implement solutions to all problems which are beyond the capacity of national governments, or which are now or may become of international concern or consequence.
- For the Complete Copy of the Federation's constitution, please see Constitution of the Federation of East Africa
The Federal Politburo (Executive Branch)
The Federal Politburo is the executive branch of the Federal government of the Federation. Under the Constitution, the Federal Politburo has several specific functions and powers granted to it. The Federal Politburo functions to implement the basic system of Federation law as defined in the Constitution and in the codified system of international law after approval by the Federal Assembly. The Federal Politburo implements legislation enacted by the Federal Assembly and signed by the General Secretary. It has the power to propose and recommend legislation for enactment by the Federal Assembly as well as to convene the Federal Assembly in special sessions when necessary. Its tasked with supervising the Federal Administration and the Integrative Complex and all of the departments, bureaus, offices, institutes and agencies thereof.
The Federal Politburo has the power to nominate, select and remove the heads of various organs, branches, departments, bureaus, offices, commissions, institutes, agencies and other parts of the Federal Government, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and as specified in measures enacted by the Federal Assembly. It must prepare and submit annually to the Federal Assembly a comprehensive budget for the operations of the Federal Government, and to prepare and submit periodically budget projections over periods of several years. The Federal Politburo must define and propose priorities for Federation legislation and budgetary allocations. Finally, it is to be held accountable to the Federal Assembly for the expenditures of appropriations made by the Federal Assembly in accordance with approved and longer term budgets, subject to revisions approved by the Federal Assembly.
The General Secretary
The General Secretary of the Federation is the chief executive officer, commander and chief of Federation Armed Forces, and chief diplomat of the United Federation of East African Nations. The General Secretary must previously have been a member of at least one house within the Federal Assembly before he or she can been considered eligible for election to the office of General Secretary. The two houses of the Federal Assembly make nominations and the number of nominees are between one to two nominations from each nation within the Federation. From among the nominees submitted by the Chambers of the Federal Assembly, the General Secretary is elected by a vote of the combined citizenship of all nations within the Federation. A plurality vote equal to at least 51 percent of the total citizenship of the Federation is required for the election of the General Secretary, with successive elimination votes taken as necessary until the required plurality is achieved. The General Secretary of the Federation can be removed for cause by an absolute majority vote of the combined membership of both Chambers of the Federal Assembly in joint session. The term of office for the General Secretary is ten-years and at the end of each ten-year period, the General Secretary in office continues to serve until the new General Secretary for the succeeding term is elected. Each General Secretary is limited to two consecutive terms in office.
The General Secretary assigns the ministerial positions among the Federal Secretariat members to head the several administrative departments and major agencies of the Administration and of the Integrative Complexes. The General Secretary can not serve as a Secretary to head an administrative department. Ministerial positions may be changed at the discretion of the General Secretary. The General Secretary, in consultation with the Federal Secretariat, prepares and present to the Federal Assembly near the beginning of each year a proposed program of Federal legislation. The General Secretariat may also propose other legislation during the year. The General Secretary, in consultation with the Federal Secretariat as well as with the Federation Financial Administration, is responsible for preparing and submitting to the Federal Assembly the proposed annual budget, and budgetary projections over periods of five-years. Other functions of the General Secretary are: To implement the basic system of Federation law as defined in the Constitution and in the codified system of international law after approval by the Federation Assembly, to implement legislation enacted by the Federal Assembly, to propose and recommend legislation for enactment by the Federal Assembly, to convene the Federal Assembly in special sessions when necessary, to supervise the World Administration and the Integrative Complex and all of the departments, bureaus, offices, institutes and agencies thereof, and finally to nominate, select and remove the heads of various organs, branches, departments, bureaus, offices, commissions, institutes, agencies and other parts of the Federation Government, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and as specified in measures enacted by the Federal Assembly.
The General Secretary may not at any time alter, suspend, abridge, infringe or otherwise violate any provision of the Constitution or any legislation or law enacted or approved by the Federation Assembly in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. The General Secretary does have veto any legislation passed by the Federal Assembly. However, once vetoed the legislation returns to the Federal Assembly where, if it again obtains a passing vote of both Chambers, it can become a law. The General Secretary can not dissolve the Federal Assembly or act contrary to decisions of the Federal Courts. Thus, the General Secretary is bound to faithfully execute all legislation passed by the Federal Assembly after being vetoed and may not impound or refuse to spend funds appropriated by the Federal Assembly, nor spend more funds than are appropriated. Finally, the General Secretary may not transcend or contradict the decisions or controls of the Federal Assembly, the Federal Judiciary or the provisions of the Constitution by any device of executive order or executive privilege or emergency declaration or decree.
The Federal Secretariat
The Federal Secretariat is composed of no less than ten members, all of whom have served in at least one chamber of the Federal Assembly before being elected into the Secretariat. There is never more than four members of the Federal Secretariat from any single nation of the Federation. Each member of the Federal Secretariat serves as the head of a department or agency of the Administration or Integrative Complex, and in this capacity is designated as Secretary of that particular department or agency. The General Secretary of the Federation, taking into consideration the various functions that the Federal Secretariat members are to perform, makes nominations for secretaries. The General Secretary nominates no more than two times the number to be elected, and a simple majority vote of the combined membership of both Chambers of the Federal Assembly in joint session is carried out to elect each Secretary. Members of the Federal Secretariat either individually or collectively can be removed for cause by an absolute majority vote of the combined membership of both Chamber of the Federal Assembly sitting in joint session. The term of office in the Federal Secretariat is five years, except that at the end of each five-year period, the Secretaries in office continue to serve until the new Federal Secretariat for the succeeding term is elected. Membership in the Federal Secretariat shall be limited to four consecutive terms, regardless of change in secretarial position. Each Federal Secretariat Member as Secretary of a particular department or agency prepares annually, a report for that particular department or agency to be submitted both to the General Secretary and to the Federal Assembly. The Federal Secretariat is divide between two particular organizations: The Federal Administration and the Integrative Complex.
The Federal Administration is organized to carry out the detailed and continuous administration and implementation of Federation legislation and law. Its under the direction of the Federal Politburo, and is at all times be responsible to the Federal Politburo. The Federal Administration is composed of professionally organized departments and other agencies in all areas of activity requiring continuity of administration and implementation by the Federal Government. A Secretary heads each Department or major agency of the Federal Administration. Each Department or major agency has as chief of staff, a Senior Administrator, who assists the Secretary and supervise the detailed work of the Department or agency. Each Senior Administrator is nominated by the Secretary of the particular Department or agency from among persons in the senior lists of the Federal Civil Service Administration, as soon as senior lists have been established by the Federal Civil Service Administration, and is confirmed by the General Secretary. The Secretaries Can make temporary qualified appointments with confirmation by the General Secretary, pending establishment of the senior lists. There is a Chief Administrator of the Federal Administration, who is nominated by the General Secretary and confirmed by absolute majority vote of the entire Federal Secretariat. The functions and responsibilities of the Chief Administrator are to assist in coordinating the work of the Senior Administrators of the several Departments and agencies of the Federal Administration. The Chief Administrator is at all times subject to the direction of the General Secretary, and is directly responsible to the General Secretary. The employment of any Senior Administrator and of the Chief Administrator can be terminated for cause by absolute majority vote of the Federal Secretariat, but not contrary to civil service rules, which protect tenure on grounds of competence.
The Integrative Complex is made up of certain administrative, research, planning and facilitative agencies of the Federal Government which are particularly essential for the satisfactory functioning of all or most aspects of the Federal Government. Each agency of the Integrative Complex is headed by a Secretary and a Senior Administrator, together with a Commission as provided through means discussed in the Constitution. The rules of procedure for each agency are decided by majority decision of the Commission members together with the Administrator and the Secretary. The Federal Assembly can, at any time, define further the responsibilities, functioning and organization of the several agencies of the Integrative Complex and each agency of the Integrative Complex is required to make an annual report to the Federal Assembly and the General Secretary.
List of Federal Secretariat Offices
- Federation Administration
- Foreign Ministry
- African Affairs.
- Interior Ministry
- Economic and Social Development.
- Water Supplies and Waterways.
- Food and Agriculture
- Federation Resources.
- Communications and Information.
- Federation Territories and Parks.
- Democratic Procedures.
- Treasury Ministry
- Defense Ministry
- Disarmament and War Prevention.
- Federation Security
- Justice Ministry
- Human Rights.
- Distributive Justice.
- Agriculture Ministry
- Food and Agriculture.
- Commerce and Labor Ministry
- Labor and Income.
- Commerce and Industry
- Federation Service Corps.
- Health Ministry
- Health and Nutrition.
- Environment and Ecology.
- Genetic Research and Engineering.
- Housing and Urban Development Ministry
- Habitat and Settlements.
- Transportation Ministry
- Transportation and Travel.
- Energy Ministry
- Nuclear Power
- Sustainable Energy Research
- Education Ministry
- Cultural Diversity and the Arts.
- Science and Technology.
- Foreign Ministry
- The Integrative Complex
- The Federation Civil Service Administration.
- The Federation Boundaries and Elections Administration.
- The Institute on Governmental Procedures and Federation Problems.
- The Agency for Research and Planning.
- The Agency for Technological and Environmental Assessment.
- The Federation Financial Administration.
- Commission for Legislative Review
The Federal Assembly (Legislative Branch)
The Federal Assembly is a bicameral legislative body composed of a Federation Council, to represent the nations which are joined together in the Federation of East African Nations, and the Federal Senate, to represent the people of each member state directly and equally. Both chambers0 of the Federal Assembly are located in the Assembly building located in the heart of the capital city of Aksum. The functions and powers of the Federal Assembly are clearly defined within the constitution of the Federation. The Federal Assembly has the power to prepare and enact detailed legislation in all areas of authority and jurisdiction granted to the Federal Government under Article IV of the Constitution. The Federal Assembly also has the power to amend or repeal Federation laws as may be found necessary or desirable, approve, amend, or reject the international laws developed prior to the advent of the Federal Government, and to codify and integrate the system of international law and legislation under the Federal Government, and also to establish such regulations and directions as may be needed, consistent with this constitution, for the proper functioning of all organs, branches, departments, bureaus, commissions, institutes, agencies or parts of the Federal Government.
The Federal Assembly is tasked to review, amend and give final approval to each budget for the Federal Government, as submitted by the Federation Executive; to devise the specific means for directly raising funds needed to fulfill the budget, including taxes, licenses, fees, internationally accounted social and public costs which must be added into the prices for goods and services, loans and credit advances, and any other appropriate means; and to appropriate and allocate funds for all operations and functions of the Federation Government in accordance with approved budgets, but subject to the right of the Legislature to revise any appropriation not yet spent or contractually committed. The Federal Assembly also has the power to create, alter, abolish or consolidate the departments, bureaus, commissions, institutes, agencies or other parts of the Federation Government as may be needed for the best functioning of the several organs of the Federal Government, subject to the specific provisions of this Constitution.
The Federal Assembly must also approve the appointments of the heads of all major departments, commissions, offices, agencies and other parts of the several organs of the Federal Government, except those chosen by electoral or civil service procedures. Finally, the Federal Assembly has the power to remove from office for cause any member of the Federal Politburo, and any elective or appointive head of any organ, department, office, agency or other part of the Federal Government, subject to the specific provisions in this Constitution concerning specific offices.
The Federation Council
The Federation Council is one of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. It is composed of two national delegates, known as Council members, elected or appointed by procedures that are determined by each member nation's national government. Council members are elected or appointed to serve for terms of eight-years, and can be elected or appointed to serve successive terms without limit. Any person to serve as a Council member must be a natural born citizen of the Federation, a resident of at least two years of the nation to be represented, must be at least 21 years of age, and shall take a pledge of service to the people of the Federation. The current number of council members stands as six. The Federation Council, like the Federal Senate, assembles in a hall within the Federal Assembly building in Aksum.
In the Federation Council, members need not seek the recognition of the presiding officer, the Council Chairman of the Federation, as is done in the Federal Senate. If two or more Council members simultaneously rise to speak, the House decides which one is to be heard by acclamation, however, to ensure the Council runs smoothly the Chairman will often suggest an order at first meeting that is thereafter generally followed through the year. Speeches in the Council are addressed to the House as a whole (My fellow Council men and women) rather than to the presiding officer alone (as is the custom in the People's Chamber). Members may not refer to each other in the second person (as you), but rather use third person forms such as "the noble Councilmen from Ethiopia", "the Eritrea Councilwoman", etc. Each member may make no more than one speech on a motion, except that the mover of the motion may make one speech at the beginning of the debate and another at the end. Speeches are not subject to any time limits in the House; however, the House may put an end to a speech by approving a motion "that the noble council member be no longer heard". It is also possible for the House to end the debate entirely, by approving a motion "that the Question be now put". This procedure is known as Closure, and is extremely rare.
Once all speeches on a motion have concluded, or Closure invoked, the motion may be put to a vote. The House first votes by voice vote; the Chairman puts the question, and the all Council members, one at a time following the Chairman, respond either "Content" (in favor of the motion) or "Not Content" (against the motion). The Chairman then announces the result of the voice vote, but if his or her assessment is challenged by any Council member, a recorded vote known as a division follows. Members of the House enter one of two lobbies (the "Content" lobby or the "Not-Content" lobby) on either side of the Chamber, where their names are recorded by clerks. At each lobby are two Tellers (personnel of the Federation Council) who count the votes. Once the division concludes, the Tellers provide the results thereof to the Vice President, who then announces them to the House. If there is an stalemate, then the House abstains its vote and the motion is sent to the Federal Senate for a vote. If there is also a stalemate in the Federal Senate, the decision is sent to the General Secretary of the Federation for final decision.
The Council establishes at the beginning of each secession both Grand Committees and Select Committees. Any member of the House may participate in either type of committee though can only sit on one committee at a time. Grand Committee are formed to review certain bills before they come to the Council, as a whole, to be voted upon. No divisions are held in Grand Committees, and any amendments to the bill require the unanimous consent of the entire body. Hence, the Grand Committee procedure is used only for uncontroversial bills. Select Committee memberships are appointed by the House at the beginning of each session, and continue to serve until the next session begins. Most Select Committees are permanent, but the House may also establish ad hoc committees, which cease to exist upon the completion of a particular task. The primary function of Select Committees is to scrutinize and investigate Government activities. To fulfill these aims, they are permitted to hold hearings and collect evidence.
List of Committees established by the Federation Council
- Communications Select Committee
- Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform Select Committee
- Economic Affairs Committee
- Economic Affairs Finance Bill Select Sub-Committee
- African Affairs Committee
- Economic and Financial Affairs, Trade and International Relations
- Internal Market
- Foreign Affairs, Defense and Development Policy
- Environment and Agriculture
- Law and Institutions
- Home Affairs
- Social Policy and Consumer Affairs
- Hybrid Instruments Committee
- Intergovernmental Organizations Select Committee
- Council Liaison Committee
- Merits of Statutory Instruments Select Committee
- Select Committee on Regulators
- Science and Technology Committee
- House Committee
- Procedure Committee
- Administration and Works Select Committee
The Federal Senate
The Federal Senate or simply, the Senate, is one of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. Like the Federation Council, the Federal Senate meets in the Federal Assembly Building in Aksum. The Senate Chamber is composed of delegates, who are referred to as Senators. For every 500,000 people in a nation’s population, that nation receives one seat within the Chamber. Nations of less than 500,000 in population are allowed to join in groups or alliances with other nations for purposes of representation in the Senate Chamber. Elections are held within each member nation and are overseen by the Federation Government to ensure they are done properly and fairly. Senators are elected by universal adult suffrage, open to all persons of age 18 and above who are national citizens of the country from which the Senator is being elected. Senators are elected to serve a six-year term in the Senate Chamber and may be elected to serve successive terms without limit. A candidate for election to serve as a Senator must be at least 21 years of age, a natural born citizen of a nation within the Federation, a resident for at least one year of the nation which the candidate is seeking to represent, and shall take a pledge of service to the people of the Federation. The current number of Senators within the Senate Chamber stands at 21,228.
In the Senate, members may speak only if called upon by the Speaker of the Senate, who is the presiding officer of the Senate, or a Deputy Speaker only if the Speaker is not presiding during that day's session. Speeches are addressed to the Speaker, using the words "Mr. Speaker," "Madam Speaker," "Mr. Deputy Speaker," or "Madam Deputy Speaker." Only the Senate Speaker may be directly addressed in debate; other Members must be referred to in the third person. Traditionally, Members do not refer to each other by name, but by nation, using forms such as "the Honorable Senator from Ethiopia." Members of the same nationality refer to each other in such a way as "my Honorable fellow Djiboutian". The Speaker enforces the rules of the Chamber, and may warn and punish Members who deviate from them. Disregarding the Speaker's instructions is considered a severe breach of the rules of the Chamber, and may result in the suspension of the offender from the Chamber. In the case of grave disorder, the Speaker may adjourn the Chamber without taking a vote.
The Standing Orders of the Senate do not establish any formal time limits for debates. The Speaker may, however, order a Senator who persists in making a tediously repetitive or irrelevant speech to stop speaking. The time set aside for debate on a particular motion is, however, often limited by informal agreements between the members themselves. Debate may also be restricted by the passage of "Allocation of Time Motions." Alternatively, the Chamber may put an immediate end to debate by passing a motion to invoke Closure. The Speaker is allowed to deny the motion if he or she believes that it infringes upon the rights of the minority. When the debate concludes, or when the Closure is invoked, the motion in question is put to a vote. The Chamber first votes by voice vote; the Speaker or Deputy Speaker puts the question, and Members respond either "Aye" (in favor of the motion) or "Nay" (against the motion). The Speaker then announces the result of the voice vote, but if his or her assessment is challenged by any Member or the voice vote is unclear, a recorded vote known as a division follows. When a division occurs, members enter one of two lobbies (the "Aye" lobby or the "Nay" lobby) on either side of the Chamber, where their names are recorded by clerks. A member who wishes to pointedly abstain from a vote may do so by entering both lobbies, casting one vote for and one against. At each lobby are two tellers (personnel of the Senate) who count the votes of the members.
Once the division concludes, the tellers provide the results to the Speaker, who then announces them to the Chamber. If there is a stalemate then the House abstains its vote and the motion is sent to the Federation Council for a vote. If there is also a stalemate in the Federation Council, the decision is sent to the General Secretary of the Federation for final decision. Like the Federation Council, the Senate has two types of Committees, Standing Committees and Select Committees. Standing Committees, which consist of between 16 and 50 members are established to review bills before they come to a vote of the entire House. The membership of each Standing Committee roughly reflected the strength of a particular nation in the house. The membership of Standing Committees changed constantly; new Members were assigned each time the committee considered a new bill. Select Committee's memberships are also reflect the strength of a particular nation in the House. Select Committees are usually formed to investigate a certain government department or issue of interest.
List of Committees of the Federal Senate
- Business and Enterprise Select Committee
- Children, Schools and Families Select Committee
- Communities and Local Government Select Committee
- Culture, Media and Sport Select Committee
- Defense Select Committee
- Energy and Climate Change Select Committee
- Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Select Committee
- Foreign Affairs Select Committee
- Health Select Committee
- Home Affairs Select Committee
- Innovation, Universities, Science and Skills Select Committee
- International Development Select Committee
- Justice Select Committee
- Transport Select Committee
- Treasury Select Committee
- Work and Pensions Select Committee
- Environmental Audit Select Committee
- African Scrutiny Committee
- Public Accounts Select Committee
- Public Administration Select Committee
- Arms Export Controls Committee
- Regulatory Reform Committee
- Select Committee on Statutory Instruments
- Select Committee on Standards
- Procedure Committee
- Administration Committee
- Finance and Services Committee
Federal Supreme Court (Judicial Branch)
The Federal Supreme Court is the highest court within the Federation of East African nations. The Federation Supreme Court is established, together with such regional and district courts as may subsequently be found necessary. The Federation Supreme Court comprises a number of benches. The Federation Supreme Court, together with such regional and district courts as may be established, have mandatory jurisdiction in all cases, actions, disputes, conflicts, violations of law, civil suits, guarantees of civil and human rights, constitutional interpretations, and other litigation arising under the provisions of this Constitution, Federation legislation, and the body of law approved by the Federation Assembly.
Decisions made by the Federation Supreme Court are binding on all parties involved in all cases, actions and litigation brought before any bench of the Federation Supreme Court for settlement. Each bench of the Federation Supreme Court constitute a court of highest appeal, except when matters of extra-ordinary public importance are assigned or transferred to the Superior Tribunal of the Federation Supreme Court, as provided in Section E of Article IX of the Constitution of the Federation.
Benches of the Federal Supreme Court
The benches of the Federal Supreme Court and their respective jurisdictions are as follows below. Other benches may be established, combined or terminated upon recommendation of the Collegium of Federal Judges with approval by the Federal Assembly; but the first eight benches listed below may not be combined nor terminated except by amendment of the Constitution. The primary seat of the Federal Supreme Court and all benches is the capital city of Aksum.
Bench for Human Rights: To deal with issues of human rights arising under the guarantee of civil and human rights provided by Article XII of this Constitution, and arising in pursuance of the provisions of Article XII of this Constitution, and arising otherwise under Federation legislation and the body of law approved by the Federation Assembly.
Bench for Criminal Cases: To deal with issues arising from the violation of Federation laws and legislation by individuals, corporations, groups and associations, but not issues primarily concerned with human rights.
Bench for Civil Cases: To deal with issues involving civil law suits and disputes between individuals, corporations, groups and associations arising under Federation legislation and law and the administration thereof.
Bench for Constitutional Cases: To deal with the interpretation of this Constitution and with issues and actions arising in connection with the interpretation of this Constitution.
Bench for International Conflicts: To deal with disputes, conflicts and legal contest arising between or among the nations, which have joined in the Federation.
Bench for Public Cases: To deal with issues not under the jurisdiction of another bench arising from conflicts, disputes, civil suits or other legal contests between the Federation Government and corporations, groups or individuals, or between national governments and corporations, groups or individuals in cases involving Federation legislation and law.
Appellate Bench: To deal with issues involving Federation legislation and law which may be appealed from national courts, and to decide which bench to assign a case or action or litigation when a question or disagreement arises over the proper jurisdiction.
Advisory Bench: To give opinions upon request on any legal question arising under Federation law or legislation, exclusive of contests or actions involving interpretation of this Constitution. Any House or committee of the Federation Assembly, by the President, any Administrative Department, the Office of Federation Attorneys General, the Federation Ombudsman, or by any agency of the Integrative Complex, may request advisory opinions.
The College of Federal Judges
A College of Federal Judges or Collegium of Federal Judges is established by the Federal Assembly and consist of a minimum of twenty member judges although it can be expanded as needed but not to exceed sixty members. Judges that compose the Collegium of Federal Judges are nominated by the General Secretary and are elected by plurality vote of the both chambers of the Federal Assembly in joint session. The General Secretary nominates between two and three times the number of Federal judges to be elected at any one time. The term of office for a Federal Judge is twenty years, Successive terms allowed without limit.
The Collegium of Federal Judges elect a Presiding Council of Judges, consisting of a Chief Justice and four Associate Chief Justices. One member of the Presiding Council of Judges are elected from each state within the Federation. Members of the Presiding Council of Judges serve ten-year terms on the Presiding Council, and may serve two successive terms, but not two successive terms as Chief Justice. The Presiding Council of Judges assigns all Federation Judges, including themselves, to the several benches of the Federal Supreme Court, and the subsequent lower courts. Each bench of the Federal Supreme Court has a minimum of three Judges, except that the number of Judges for benches on International Conflicts and the Appellate Bench, has no less than five.
Member judges of each bench choose annually a Presiding Judge, who may serve two successive terms. Members of the several benches can be reconstituted from time to time as may seem desirable or necessary upon the decision of the Presiding Council of Judges. Any decision to re-constitute a bench is referred to a vote of the entire Collegium of Federal Judges by request of any Judge. Any Judge can removed from office for cause by an absolute two- thirds majority vote of the two chambers of the Federal Assembly in joint session. Qualifications for Judges of the Federal Supreme Court are at least ten years of legal or juristic experience, minimum age of thirty years, and evident competence in Federation law and the humanities. Salaries, expenses, remunerations and prerogatives of the Judges are determined by the Federal Assembly, and are reviewed every five years, but cannot be changed to the disadvantage of any Judge during a term of office. All members of the Collegium of Federal Judges receive the same salaries, except that additional compensation may be given to the Presiding Council of Judges.
11. Upon recommendation by the College of Federation Judges, the Federal Assembly has the authority to establish regional and district courts below the Federation Supreme Court, and to establish the jurisdictions thereof, and the procedures for appeal to the Federation Supreme Court or to the several benches thereof. The detailed rules of procedure for the functioning of the Federal Supreme Court, the Collegium of Federal Judges, and for each bench of the Federal Supreme Court, is decided and amended by absolute majority vote of the Collegium of Federal Judges.
The Superior Tribunal of the Federation Supreme Court
A Superior Tribunal of the Federal Supreme Court is established to take cases, which are considered to be of extra-ordinary public importance. The Superior Tribunal for any calendar year consist of the Presiding Council of Federal Judges together with one Federal Judge named by the Presiding Judge of each bench of the Federal Supreme Court. The composition of the Superior Tribunal may be continued unchanged for a second year by decision of the Presiding Council of Federal Judges. Any party to any dispute, issue, case or litigation coming under the jurisdiction of the Federal Supreme Court, may apply to any particular bench of the Federal Supreme Court or to the Presiding Council of Federal Judges for the assignment or transfer of the case to the Superior Tribunal on the grounds of extra-ordinary public importance. If the application is granted, the case shall be heard and disposed of by the Superior Tribunal. Also, any bench taking any particular case, if satisfied that the case is of extra-ordinary public importance, may of its own discretion transfer the case to the Superior Tribunal.
The Federation of East African Nations has shown a fast-growing annual GDP and it is one of the fastest-growing non-oil-dependent African nation in the region. A middle-income country, the Federation has a well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors, a stock exchange that ranks among the top in the world, and a modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the entire region. The Federation is one of the largest energy producer and consumer on the continent. A popular tourist destination, a substantial amount of revenue comes from tourism especially to Ethiopia who is a very ancient Christian country with deep historical roots in the continent.
Ethiopia, one of the founding nations of the Federation, is referred to as the "water tower" of Eastern Africa because of the many (14 major) rivers that pour off the high tableland. It also has the greatest water reserves in Africa, using several powerful irrigation systems in place to use it both for power and irrigation itself. Noting Ethiopia as one the most fertile countries in Africa if not the world, the Federation has spent heavily on improving its agricultural sector and has now given Ethiopia, an the Federation, the potential of becoming the breadbasket for much of Africa and possible other regions such as Europe and the Middle East.
The Federation has invested in communications and physical infrastructure, improving railways, highways, and waterways. It has also sought to develop a strong private sector dedicated to green energy, including wind, hydro-power, and ethanol.
Food and agriculture processing, beverages, clothing and textiles, leather, chemicals, metals processing, cements, light manufacturing, salt, construction.
Cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes, qat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, camels, goats; tobacco, sisal; livestock, goats; fish, fruits.
coffee, qat, gold, leather products, live animals, oilseeds, livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small manufactures.
food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles, cereals, textiles, machinery, manufactured goods, transport equipment.
Gold, potash, zinc, copper, platinum, clay, granite, limestone, marble, salt, possibly oil and natural gas, petroleum, fish, hydropower, potential geothermal power, diatomite, gypsum, pumice.
Education in the Federation of East African Nations has public education provided, funded and overseen by federal, national, provincial, and local governments. Education is within federal jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the department of education. Education in the Federation is generally divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Within each nation and its provinces there are district school boards administering the educational programs. Education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in every province of every nation in the Federation. The Federation generally has 190 school days in the year, officially starting from September (after Labour Day) to the end of June (usually the last Friday of the month). Elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education in the Federation is a federal responsibility. Starting at grade one, at age six or seven, there is universal publicly funded access up to grade twelve (or equivalent). The age of mandatory entry is at 4–7 years and children are required to attend school until the age of sixteen.
About one out of ten citizens of the Federation does not have a high school diploma – one in seven has a university degree – the adult population that is without a high school diploma is a combination of both immigrant and Federation-born. In many places, publicly-funded high school courses are offered to the adult population. The ratio of high school graduates versus non diploma-holders is changing rapidly, partly due to changes in the labor market that require people to have a high school diploma and, in many cases, a university degree. Normally, for each type of publicly funded school, the province is divided into districts (or divisions). For each district, board members (trustees) are elected only by its supporters within the district (voters receive a ballot for just one of the boards in their area). Normally, all publicly funded schools are under the authority of their local district school board. These school boards follow a common curriculum set up by the federal government.
Primary education and secondary education combined are sometimes referred to as K-12 (Kindergarten through Grade 12). In the Federation, secondary schooling, known as high school or collegiate institute or secondary school, is all unified under ciriculum and structure set by the federal government. Additionally, grade structure is also the same through each nation. Education is compulsory up to the age of 16 and students may continue to attend high school until the ages of 19 to 21 (the cut-off age for high school is 21 Federation-wide). Those 19 and over may attend adult school and if high schoolers are expelled or suspended for a period of time over 2 months or so they have the option of attending night school at the high school. An increasing number of international students are attending pre-university courses at Federation high schools.
Post-secondary education in the Federation is also the responsibility of the federal government. The government provides the majority of funding to the public post-secondary institutions, with the remainder of funding coming from tuition fees, the national government, and research grants. Compared to other countries in the past, the Federation has had the highest tertiary school enrollment as a percentage of their graduating population. Nearly all post-secondary institutions in the Federation have the authority to grant academic credentials (diplomas or degrees). Generally speaking, universities grant degrees (bachelor's, master's or doctorate degrees) while colleges, which typically offer vocationally-oriented programs, grant diplomas and certificates. However, some colleges offer applied arts degrees that lead to or are equivalent to degrees from a university. Private career colleges are overseen by legislative acts and the Universities have degree-granting authority via an Act or Departmental Consent from the Department of Education. Students complete a two- or three-year general program leading to admission to a university, or a professional program leading directly into the labor force. In most cases, bachelor's degree programs are four years; however, in many cases, students attending a university that did not graduate from college must complete an additional year of coursework.
About 10% of students are in private schools within the Federation and a minority of these are elite private schools. These schools are attended by only a small fraction of students, but do have a great deal of prestige and prominence. It is not unusual for the wealthy and prominent in the Federation to send their children to public schools, especially in the lower grades. A far larger portion of private schools are religious based institutions.
In the past, private universities in the Federation maintained a religious history or foundation. However, several Universities have recently been established that are privately funded liberal arts universities without a denominational affiliation. Many Federation citizens remain polarized on the issue of permitting private universities into the Federation market. On the one hand, the Federation’s top universities find it difficult to compete with the private European powerhouses because of funding, but on the other hand, the fact that the price of private universities tends to exclude those who cannot pay that much for their education could prevent a significant portion of the Federation’s population from being able to attend these schools.
Each nation deals differently with private religious schools. In Eritrea the Orthodox Christian system continues to be fully publicly funded while other faiths are not. Ethiopia has several private Jewish, Muslim, and Christian schools all funded through tuition fees. In other provinces privately operated religious schools are funded. In Dijibouti, the government pays 50% of the cost of religious schools that meet rigorous provincial standards. The country has a number of Sikh, Hindu, and Muslim schools.
Demographically speaking, the Federation of East Africa is a very diverse super-national state given that they are a Federation of several nations all of different cultures and traditions. There is literally a plethora of indigenous people, languages, religions, and customs. While the Federation has setup its own official cutlure, the federal government through the provisions of the constitution, supports its diversity and seeks to safeguard and protect this diversity in order to preserve it for future generations.
Tolerance for the mass diversity of the Federation is among the governments top priorities as well as promoting unity through the common ideals held by all peoples and embodied by the federal government and the Federation itself. Due to the government's upholding of the safeguards that protect the diversity of the Federation, much of the population has made the transition to the official culture shared and promoted in all nations within the Federation itself. While many believe that this would only go to create tension between nations, the federal government has enacted policies which only go to promote the official culture while simultaneously protecting, promoting, and preserving the individual and unique culture of each subgroup. While not an easy nor financially cheap task to undertake, these federal policies have paid off in creating a society within the Federation that has been able to hold on to their own unique cultural identity while also embracing a new standardize culture shared by all people.
Though the Federation has a standardized language, being a highly diverse nation means that within the Federation there are numerous other languages spoken, many of which are recognized by the state and accommodated. Given that the country is a Federation of Nations and that with these nations there are literally dozens upon dozens of languages spoken, having a standardize language spoken by all was a difficult task to undertake by the federal government. Today the primarily language of the Federation is English, with Amharic, Tigrinya, Arabic, Italian, and French also among the most widely used
To date, currently in the Federation is there are some eighty-four indigenous languages. While they are not widely used through the Federation, the federal government takes care to ensure the survival of these languages by promoting multi-linguistic education to ensure that an individual's cultural language is not lost at the expense of learning the official language or the other primary languages used throughout. The following is a list of some of the eight-four indigenous languages spoken in parts of the Federation:
The population of the Federation is a diverse mixture of several core nationalities. These core nationalities are currently: Ethiopian, Eriterian, and Dijiboutian. However, beyond the core nationalities there is believed to be upwards of 88 ethnic groups, some of which number less than 1,000 reported members. No definitive list of these peoples currently exist, and many authorities of the member nations of the Federation not only disagree over which are properly considered subgroups or which are artificial combinations of smaller groups. Despite these complications, an idea of the ethnic diversity of the Federation can be obtained from the following list taken from the latest National Census taken by the Federal government:
- Debase/ Gawwada
While the Federation maintains tolerance for all religious groups without and outside its borders, Orthodox Christianity is the officially recognized region. A large number of religions are traditionally practiced throughout the Federation but the most numerous today is Orthodox Christianity, the primary reason why it was chosen as the official religion. While Orthodox Christianity is the official religion of the Federation, federal laws and the constitution maintain tolerance for all religions and a freedom to practice any faith a individual and citizen may choose or none at all.
Following Orthodox Christianity, Protestantism is another major faith within the Federation, followed by Islam, Genesian Catholicism, Judaism. Traditional beliefs, usually categorized as other, attract a decreasing number of followers, while atheism is almost entirely unheard of. The following is a list of religions that, according to a recent national census, are currently being practiced within the borders of the Federation:
- Orthodox Christianity
- Protestant Christianity
- Genesian Catholicism
- Sunni Islam
- Atheism/No belief